Promotional Features

AB Biotek HNH innovates with DAO microcapsules
AB Biotek Human Nutrition & Health

Paid for and in partnership with AB Biotek Human Nutrition & Health

The following content is provided by an advertiser or created on behalf of an advertiser. It is not written by the editorial team, nor does it necessarily reflect the opinions of

For more information, please contact us here​.

Revolutionizing DAO enzyme supplementation with breakthrough microcapsules technology

Last updated on

Diamine oxidase, known as DAO, is an enzyme that is naturally present in the gut, and plays an important function in metabolizing dietary histamine ingested from food.

However, a DAO deficiency in the body has been connected to various health conditions. One example is histamine intolerance – this occurs when there is a functional lack of the DAO enzyme, which is produced in the cells of the intestinal lining called enterocytes.

When there is an imbalance in the metabolism of dietary histamine due to lower levels of DAO enzyme, the body is no longer able to break down the histamine contained in the food of the diet. As a result of this, histamine may trigger local reactions in the gut and may also be absorbed intact into the bloodstream. It will then be distributed to different tissues and organs, and activate certain histamine receptors, leading to varying symptoms. Unlike in food allergies, the appearance of symptoms is not linked to specific foods, and there is no temporal relationship between the ingestion of histaminic food and the appearance of symptoms.

The most typical symptoms associated with DAO deficiency are:

  • Nervous system: migraine, headaches, vertigo and/or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
  • Digestive system: diarrhea, constipation, abdominal pain and distension, reflux, nausea and/or vomiting
  • Dermatologic system: itching, redness, edema, atopic skin and/or eczema
  • Respiratory system: nose congestion, rhinitis, asthma and/or sneezing
  • Locomotive system: muscle pain, joint pain, fibromyalgia and/or fatigue

Of these symptoms, the most frequently reported are in the nervous and digestive systems. DAO deficiency is also more often seen in women. It is estimated that approximately 80% of cases of DAO deficiency are of genetic origin, with those affected often seeing at least one altered variant of the AOC1 gene which is associated with the expression of the DAO protein. There are also environmental factors that can increase an individual’s propensity to develop DAO deficiency, including menstrual period, stressful situations, prolonged fasting, high-intensity sports, consumption of histamine-releasing drugs or food, environmental allergies and intestinal dysbiosis, as well as other causes.

Supplementation: Delivering a solution

It is possible to take a supplement of DAO enzyme to increase the amount of DAO in the gut. This can boost histamine degradation from the diet and therefore improve the condition. At AB Biotek Human Nutrition & Health, dietary management of DAO deficiency has been the focus of over 15 years of R&D.

One particular challenge is effectively formulating DAO enzyme, as it can be particularly delicate to work with, and delivery needs to be robust enough to reach the small intestine. Besides the intrinsic characteristics of the enzyme which makes it sensitive to temperature and pH, there are a number of physical, structural, metabolic and biological interactions which may be derived from the combination of the enzyme with bioactives.

A means of navigating this is through formulating gastro-resistant microcapsules. This is achieved through a combined sequential coating technology.

The double coating process of the microcapsules provides the enzyme with the necessary protection to pass through the gastrointestinal tract, ensuring upper intestine release, where the enzyme will perform dietary histamine degradation. The coating provides the microcapsules with superior test resistance, and facilitates the combination of DAO with other bioactives, without compromising enzymatic activity or safety.

The activity and potency of the microcapsules has been validated through the use of advanced simulation models of the human gastrointestinal tract. These systems made it possible to confirm the suitability of the design of the microcapsules, as well as to verify the maintenance of the enzymatic activity as it has been released from the double protective layer.

Microcapsules, big benefits

There are a number of reasons why the microcapsule formulation offers certain advantages over other forms of DAO enzyme. One of the main purposes of creating the product was to provide a solution for those partners seeking to prevent the interaction of DAO enzyme with other bioactives, whether that is probiotics, prebiotics, herbal extract, or other products. In a similar fashion, the microcapsules provide superior compatibility with manufacturing processes which include steps with temperatures above the intrinsic level of tolerance of the native enzyme.

Other benefits of this approach are that the microcapsule formulation protects the DAO enzymes from humidity, and delivers increased stability and a reduced risk of bacterial contamination. Further, the DAO enzyme is guarded against pH variations in the formulation and during digestion.

Due to the nature of the protective layers, the product is suitable for introduction into a variety of different delivery formulations. adiDAO® microencapsulated​ solutions are possible in capsules, tablets, stickpacks, liquid suspension, and gummies formats.

Partner in confidence with a patent-leader

With over 15 years of experience developing DAO enzyme, AB Biotek Human Nutrition & Health is a qualified partner to create a product utilizing DAO enzyme. These years of R&D have been harnessed to refine the extraction and purification process of the enzyme to ensure it is more efficient and has greater enzymatic activity and stability when compared to competitor products.

All manufacturing is handled in-house through a GMP-compliant enzymatic facility for the exclusive production of animal-origin DAO.

Behind this expertise, AB Biotek Human Nutrition & Health is a patent leader, with over 100 patents that guarantee the necessary protection in the commercialization of end products containing the DAO enzyme.

To find out more about DAO microcapsules, visit AB Biotek Human Nutrition & Health​.​​


1.International Institute of DAO Deficiency​.
2.DAO and Histamine Management​, AB Biotek Human Nutrition & Health.